Water treatment plants are based on coagulation, ﬂocculation, and disinfection processes and found to be most cost-eﬀective in treating large quantities of water. However, they entail large infrastructure costs which are diﬃcult to raise in rural regions of developing countries and are generally installed using government funding. Hence, centralized treatment is available only in the metros of developing countries and mainly beneﬁt the urban population. The transportation cost of water to the centralized treatment plant and from the treatment plant to the individual households is another major expense that limits its beneﬁts to regions that are situated away from the treatment plant. Hence centralized treatment plants are generally installed near the freshwater resources (rivers or lakes) and beneﬁt the people living closer to these water bodies.